Name Service (DNS) is an Internet service that
translates domain names into IP addresses. Domain names
are easy to remember because they are alphabetic. On
the other end, the internet is based on the IP addresses
i.e every computer on the internet is associated with
a unique IP address.Internet communication is carried
out on the basis of IP addresses and not on the domain
names. A Domain name server translates the domain name
into its corresponding IP address for example the domain
name www.xyz.com might be translated to 126.96.36.199.
The DNS system is, in fact, forms its own network.If
one Domain name server doesn’t know to translate
a domain name, it looks for another one and so on until
the exact IP address is returned. DNS translates between
the internet names and internet addresses.
DNS Works ?
organizes the hostnames in the form of hierarchy. A
domain is a collection of the sites that are related
because they form a network all computers that are geographically
close as well. Universities are commonly grouped in
.edu domain with each university or college using a
separate sub domain. While
most of the topic does not require much technical knowledge,
there is one technical part of the Domain name server.
you type a name like abc.com in your internet browsers
it finds a way to map that name to the internet IP numbers,
by which the internet easily reach the abc.com computer.
For this purpose your computer uses DNS of your Internet
service provider company. All internet traffic work
on these numbers and the important factor is that the
looking up for the name is done by Domain name server.
computer has a list of the host names/IP address mapping,
which is regularly updated by the root DNS. Root DNS
servers are the master servers that can help you look
up any name. All the root DNS servers copy their own
data from the one master server, which is under the
control of ICANN. The root servers usually have a list
that where you can look for the top level domains like
.com, .net, org and .info etc. The ISP sends request
for the particular domain name to the root sever and
root server directs the request to the master server.
In this way, you get the answer with your requested
routing and root servers
domain lookups go to and from the root servers because
main routers on the internet, ISPs and backbones have
the list that where to find it.
This domain name is used by the educational institutes
like colleges and universities
.com This domain name is used by the
commercial institutes/organizations and companies.
.Org This domain is used by the non-commercial
.net Administrative hosts, gateways
and other networks.
.mil This is used by the U.S. military
.Gov This is used by the government
.info Used by the Informative sites.
is a common question that how large is the internet
and how Domain name server works. Domain name server
simply provides mapping between hostnames and the IP
addresses. When you dial in your ISP number and access
it how does it get the answer in the form of requested
domain name for you. It’s most likely that ISP
may not have stored the information. In this case first
the ISP server will send the query to the root-servers.
These are the set of very high-powered servers that
know all about the top level domains like .com, .org,
.net, .info and all the country domains.
the ISP’s name server first contact with the root-servers.
If the root-servers don’t have the requested information
then redirect the request to the GTLD servers for any
kind of top level domain and the answers come back to
the ISP’s name servers with the requested information.
At each step, ISP’s name server caching all the
information. The Domain name server is central to the
internet because without a domain name systems (DNS)
its impossible to communication on the internet.